Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
Chapter 23: Horcruxes
Where a Vietnamese word has been borrowed from Chinese, the original Chinese character is shown in parentheses.
|魂器 húnqì = 'soul instrument/vessel'.||Soul instrument (or vessel)|
|分 fēn = 'to divide, split'.
靈 líng = 'soul'.
體 tǐ = 'body, substance'.
|Split soul body|
|ホークラックス Hōkurakkusu = 'Horcrux'
|Vietnamese||Những Trường Sinh Linh Giá||những = plural marker
trường sinh (長生) 'long life, immortal life'.
linh giá (靈架) = 'soul frame, rack'.
|Immortality soul frames|
A 'horcrux' is an object into which a part of one's soul has been entrusted. To use a horcrux, one's soul first has to be violently split asunder, usually by committing murder. The English name is quite mysterious and the nature of the Horcrux needs to be explained in order to be understood.
The Chinese translator coins the word 魂器 húnqì, literally 'soul instrument', to translate 'horcrux'. Since 器 qì has a very broad range of meanings, it only becomes clear after an explanation that the word 器 qì specifically refers to a vessel for containing the soul.
The Taiwanese translator coins the word 分靈體 fēnlíng-tǐ, which means 'body for dividing the soul'. 體 tǐ is an abstract term referring to substance, form, system, or body. Here it refers to a 'body' or 'item'.
In Vietnamese, the term Trường Sinh Linh Giá consists of Trường Sinh, meaning 'immortal life' and Linh Giá 'soul frame'. Linh Giá was probably created by the translator and may allude to the term thánh giá (crucifix). (Many thanks to DHN for this analyis.)
The Japanese translator simply transliterates the name into English as ホークラックス Hōkurakkusu.