Harry Potter in Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese & Mongolian Translation


Chapter 6: Gilderoy Lockhart


Simplified Chinese (China)
Jídéluó Luòhātè
吉德罗 Jídéluó = 'Gilderoy'.
洛哈特 Luòhātè = 'Lockhart'.
Gilderoy Lockhart
Traditional Chinese (Taiwan)
Jídéluó Luóhā
吉德羅 Jídéluó = 'Gilderoy'.
洛哈 Luóhā = 'Lockhart'.
Gilderoy Lockhart
Giruderoi Rokkuhāto
ギルデロイ Giruderoi = 'Gilderoy'.
ロックハート Rokkuhāto = 'Lockhart'.
Gilderoy Lockhart
Vietnamese (Chinese characters show etymology)
Gilderoy Lockhart Gilderoy Lockhart (pronunciation footnote: Gin-đơ-roi Lốc-hác). Gilderoy Lockhart
Mongolian (previous)
Гилдерой Логхарт
Gilderoi Logkhart
Гилдерой gilderoi = 'Gilderoy'.
Логхарт logkhart = 'Lockhart'.
Gilderoy Lockhart
Mongolian (new)
Гилдерой Локхарт
Gilderoi Lokkhart
Гилдэрой gilderoi = 'Gilderoy'
Локхарт lokkhart = 'Lockheart'.
Gilderoy Lockhart

All chapter titles are transliterations of Gilderoy Lockhart's name. As such they are largely unremarkable. However, a few points stand out:

The Japanese name is transliterated into katakana according to certain well-established principles dating back over a century. For example, syllable-final 'k' is normally rendered as ック kku (as in ロック rokku), and syllables with postvocalic 'r' are represented according to British English pronunciation, as in ハート hāto ('haht', not 'hart').

Chinese transliterations of foreign names use Chinese characters for their phonetic value. Wherever possible characters are chosen with auspicious meanings: e.g., means 'auspicious, lucky'; means 'virtuous'.

The Taiwanese and Mainland renditions of 'Gilderoy Lockhart' are very similar: 吉德羅・洛哈 Jídéluó Luóhā vs 吉德罗・洛哈特 Jídéluó Luòhātè. Allowing for the difference between Traditional and Simplified characters, these are identical, apart from the addition of a final in the Mainland version. This is, in fact, far from normal. Taiwan and China have over time diverged in representing foreign words phonetically in characters, and these transliterations fail to reflect that.

    Taiwanese practice is to represent sounds 'impressionistically', without too much regard for consonant and vowel clusters and final consonants. This can be seen in the rendition 吉德羅・洛哈 Jídéluó Luóhā, which omits the final 'y' in 'Gilderoy' and the 'ck' and 't' in 'Lockhart'.

    On the other hand, Mainland practice has become very katakana-like, with each vowel and consonant spelt out as faithfully as possible. There is an established list of characters conventionally used to write foreign names. A rendition of 'Gilderoy Lockhart' that followed Mainland transliteration principles scrupulously would be something closer to 吉尔德罗伊・洛克哈尔特 Jí'ěrdéluóyī Luòkèhā'ěrtè. There was, in fact, a Scottish outlaw called 'Gilderoy' whose name is rendered in Chinese as 吉尔德罗伊 jí'ěrdéluóyī. There is also a town in Texas called Lockhart that is usually transcribed as 洛克哈尔特 Luòkèhā'ěrtè and an actress called Emma Lockhart, transcribed as 艾玛·洛克哈特 Àimǎ Luòkèhātè (minus the 'r' in 'hart').

It is clear that the Mainland Chinese translation has cribbed the name from the previously-appearing Taiwanese edition. The only concession to ordinary Mainland usage is the addition of a final .

Vietnamese uses the original spelling of the English name. When it first came out in instalments, the translation had a footnote telling readers that 'Gilderoy Lockhart' should be read Gin-đơ-roi Lốc-hác. This reflects the fact that Vietnamese does not have syllable-final 'l' or 't'. These footnotes disappeared in the later full book editions.

The two Mongolian translations transliterate Gilderoy Lockhart's name into Cyrillic on the Russian model. As part of this tradition, 'e' in foreign names is usually rendered with the Russian letter е ye rather than the usual Mongolian letter э e (as in Gilderoy Гилдерой). For some unknown reason, the previous translation used Логхарт log-khart rather than Локхарт lok-khart, which has been rectified in the new translation.

Incidentally, there is no Russian model for transliterating Gilderoy Lockhart that the translators could have used since the Russian translation uses Златопуст Локонс Zlatopust Lokons, where Златопуст means 'gold leaf' (i.e., gilded). (For reference, Bulgarian uses Гилдрой Локхарт gildroi lokkhart.)

For more on the transliteration of foreign names, see How do CJV normally handle foreign names?.

(A summary of this chapter can be found at Harry Potter Facts.) Detailed notes on the chapter can be found at Harry Potter Lexicon)

Chapter 5
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