Chapter Titles in Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese
Chapter 16: A Very Frosty Christmas
Where a Vietnamese word has been borrowed from Chinese, the original Chinese character is shown in parentheses.
bīngshuāng = 'austere, frosty and stern'.
圣诞节 Shèngdànjié = 'holy birth festival' = 'Christmas'.
Yánhán de Shèngdànjié
|嚴寒 yánhán = 'bitterly cold'.
的 de = connecting particle
聖誕節 Shèngdànjié = 'holy birth festival' = 'Christmas'.
|Bitterly cold Christmas|
Hie-bie to shita Kurisumasu
|冷え冷えとした hie-bie to shita = 'very cold, frosty'. (Past tense of 冷え冷えとしている hie-bie to shite iru, 'to be very cold'. The function of past tense is to act as an attributive form before the noun 'Christmas', not to indicate past time.)
クリスマス Kurisumasu = 'Christmas'.
|Very cold Christmas|
|Vietnamese||Một mùa Giáng sinh giá buốt||một = 'a'.
mùa = 'season'.
Giáng sinh (降生) = 'Christmas'.
giá buốt = 'cold, hard frost'.
|A frosty Christmas season|
'Frostiness' literally refers to cold weather -- a cold Christmas with frost on the ground -- but is also used for coldness in relations between people, groups, or countries. In this case, the frostiness refers to the cold encounter between Percy and his family, and also to Harry's very cool talk with Scrimgeour.
冰霜 bīngshuāng in Chinese literally means 'snow frost'; in actuality it means 'stern and austere'.