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Mongolian-Language Names for International Organisations as used in China

8 December 2016


A. Introduction
B. List of international organisations
C. Detailed names
D. Sources

A. Introduction

It is not surprising that Mongolian as spoken in China (principally Inner Mongolia) shows differences in vocabulary from Mongolia itself -- see this post. Less well known is the fact that a large and distinctive body of Mongolian-language terminology has been developed in China which virtually constitutes an independent standard within the Mongolian language. This is a terminological flowering that has gone almost unnoted in the wider world.

Here I would like to open a window onto this little-known linguistic ecosystem by focusing on one very small aspect: how international organisations are named, and how this differs from Mongolia. This may be the first time that many of these expressions have been found outside a Chinese domestic context.

While we adopt the approach of direct and equal comparison, it should be kept in mind that the names used in Inner Mongolia have a totally different status from those in Mongolia. The names of international organisations have been established for many years in Mongolia and are in actual use, including at an international level (diplomatic documents, etc.). Mongolian names in China are more artificial in nature:

Despite these shortcomings, this terminology is of interest as an alternative model of vocabulary development within the Mongolian language. The most visible differences between the two sets of terminology are:

Our vocabulary for the names of international organisations in China is based on three sources: a generalist Chinese-Mongolian dictionary published in 2005, a dictionary of law terms published in 2006, and a dictionary of 'new terms' published in 2008 (see Sources).

Below you will find a contrastive list showing names used in Mongolia and those suggested in China. The list uses only Cyrillic due to difficulties incorporating Mongolian traditional script in tables.

This is followed by a blow-by-blow comparison of names, with Russian, Chinese, and Japanese naming provided for reference. Mongolian names are shown in both Cyrillic and traditional Mongolian script.

I have attempted to make the glosses both broad in meaning and consistent, not always with great success. Japanese naming of organisations differs from others in systematically referring to United Nations specialised agencies as 機関 kikan, suggesting an organ of government (hence the rather awkward gloss 'organ'), while describing others as 機構 kikō, which is closer in meaning to 'agency' or 'organisation' (hence the gloss 'organisation'). This accounts for the difference from Chinese usage.

Finally, thanks to Steve Dodson for helping with the Russian. Any remaining errors are my own.


B. Names of International Organisations

The following is a list of international organisations found at this page. Click on the English name to go to a detailed analysis.

English Mongolia China
UNITED NATIONS
United Nations (UN) Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллага (НҮБ)
negdsen ündestnii baiguullag
'united nations organisation'
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулага
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulag
'international union organisation' (1999, 2005, 2006, 2008)
General Assembly Ерөнхий Ассамблей
yörönkhi asamblei
'general assamblei'
Их Хурал
ikh khural
'large (or great) meeting' (2005, 2006, 2008)
Secretariat Нарийн Бичгийн Даргын Газар
nariin bichgiin dargiin gazar
'secretarial leader's office'
Нарийн Бичгийн Газар
nariin bichgiin gazar
'secretarial office' (2005, 2006, 2008)
Security Council Аюулгүйн Зөвлөл
ayulgüi zövlöl
'security council'
Аюулгүйн Зөвлөл
ayulgüi zövlöl
'security council' (2005, 2006, 2008)
Аюулгүйн Зөвлөлгөөн
ayulgüi zövlölgöön
'security council' (1999)
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
African Union Африкийн Холбоо
afrikiin kholboo
'African union'
Африка Тивийн Холбоо
afrika tiviin kholboo
'African continent union' (2006)
Arab League (League of Arab States) Арабын Улсуудын Холбоо
arabiin ulsuudiin kholboo
'Arab states union'
Арабын Улсын Холбоо
arabiin ulsiin kholboo
'Arab state union' (2005, 2008)
Арабын Улсуудын Холбоо
arabiin ulsuudiin kholboo
'Arab states union' (2006)
Asian Development Bank (ADB) Азийн Хөгжлийн Банк
aziin khögjliin bank
'Asian development bank'
Азиан Нээлт Банк
azian neelt bank
'Asian opening bank' (2005)
Азиан Тивийн Нээлт Хөгжлүүлэлтийн Банк
azian tiviin neelt khögjluuleltiin bank
'Asian continent opening and development bank' (2006, 2008)
Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Зүүн Өмнөд Азийн Улсуудын Холбоо
züün ömnöd aziin ulsuudiin kholboo
'east-south Asian states union'
Зүүн Өмнөд Азиан Холбоо
züün ömnöd azian kholboo
'east-south Asian union' (2005, 2008)
Зүүн Өмнөд Азиан Улсуудын Холбоо
züün ömnöd azian ulsuudiin kholboo
'east-south Asian states union' (2006)
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Хүнс, Хөдөө Аж Ахуйн Байгууллага
khüns, khödöo aj akhuin baiguullag
'food, agriculture organisation'
Ам Будаа ба Тариалгангын Зохион Байгуулалт
am budaa bolon tarialangiin zokhion baiguulalt
'grains and crops organisation' (2006)
Ам Будаа болон Тариалангийн Зохион Байгуулалт
am budaa bolon tarialangiin zokhion baiguulalt
'grains and crops organisation' (2008)
International Air Transport Association (IATA) Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin agaariin teevriin kholboo
'international air transport association'
Occasional:
Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin agaariin teegriin baiguullag
'international air transport organisation'
Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Хэлэлцээр
olon ulsiin agaariin teevriin kheleltseer
'international air transport agreement' (2006)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Олон Улсын Атомын Энергийн Агентлаг (ОУАЭА)
olon ulsiin atomiin energiin agentlag
'international atomic energy agency'
Олон Улсын Атомын Энергийн Байгууламж
olon ulsiin atomiin energiin baiguulamj
'international atomic energy agency' (2006)
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Олон Улсын Сэргээн Босголт, Хөгжлийн Банк (ОУСБХБ)
olon ulsiin sergeen bosgolt, khöjliin bank
'international reconstruction, development bank'
Incorrect version:
Олон Улсын Шинэчлэлт Хөгжлийн Банк
olon ulsiin shinechlelt khöjliin bank
'international innovation development bank'
Олон Улсын Сэргээлт Хөгжүүлэлтийн Банк
olon ulsiin sergeelt khögjüüleltiin bank
'international reconstruction development bank' (2006)
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)

Олон Улсын Иргэний Нисэхийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin irgenii nisekhiin baiguullag
'international citizen's (=civilian) flying organisation'


Rare:
Олон Улсын Иргэний Агаарын Тээврийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin irgenii nisekhiin baiguullag
'international citizen's (=civilian) air transport organisation'
Олон Улсын Ардын Агаарын Тээврийн Зохион Байгуулалт
oron ulsiin ardiin agaariin teevriin zokhion baiguulalt
'international people's air transport organisation' (2006)
International Court of Justice (ICJ) Олон Улсын Шүүх
olon ulsiin shüükh
'international court'
Олон Улсын Шүүх Хороо
olon ulsiin shüükh khoroo
'international court' (2005, 2006, 2008)
International Development Association (IDA) Олон Улсын Хөгжлийн Ассоциаци
olon ulsiin khögjliin asotsiatsi
'international development assotsiatsi'
Олон Улсын Нээлтийн Эвлэл
olon ulsiin neeltiin evlel
'international opening association' (2005)
Олон Улсын Нээн Хөгжүүлэлтийн Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin neen khügjüüleltiin niigemleg
'international opening and development society' (2006)
Дэлхийн Нээн Хөгжүүлэх Нийгэмлэг
delkhiin neen khügjüüleh niigemleg
'world opening and developing society' (2008)
International Finance Corporation (IFC) Олон Улсын Санхүүгийн Корпораци
olon ulsiin sankhüügiin korporatsi
'international finance corporation'
Олон Улсын Мөнгөн Гүйлгээний Компани
olon ulsiin möngön güilgeenii kompani
'international money circulation (=finance) company' (2006)
International Fiscal Association (IFA) Олон Улсын Санхүүгийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin sankhüügiin kholboo
'international finance union'
* not authoritative
Олон Улсын Эдийн Засгийн Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin ediin zasgiin niigemleg
'international fiscal society' (2006)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Хөдөө Аж Ахуйг Хөгжүүлэх Олон Улсын Сан
khödöö aj akhuig khögjüülekh olon ulsiin san
'agriculture developing international fund'
Олон Улсын Хөдөө Аж Ахуйг Хөгжүүлэх Суурь Мөнгийн Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin khödöö aj akhuig khögjüülekh suur' möngiin zokhion baiguulalt
'international agriculture developing fund organisation' (2006)
International Labour Organisation (ILO) Олон Улсын Хөдөлмөрийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin khödölmöriin baiguullag
'international labour organisation'
Олон Улсын Ажилчины Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin ajilchinii zokhion baiguulalt
'international workers' organisation' (2006)
International Maritime Organisation (IMO) Олон Улсын Далайн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin dalain baiguullag
'international ocean organisation'
Олон Улсын Далайн Явдалын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin dalain yavdaliin baiguulalt
'international ocean affairs organisation' (2006)
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Олон Улсын Валютын Сан
olon ulsiin valyutiin san
'international monetary fund'
Олон Улсын Зоосны Суурь Мөнгөний Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin zoosnii suur' möngönii zokhion baiguulalt
'international money fund organisation' (2006, 2008)
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбооны Байгууллага
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboonii baiguullag
'international electric communications organisation'
Previous:
Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбоо
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboo
'international electric communications'
Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбооны Холбоо
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboonii kholboo
'international electric communications union' (2006)
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Умард Атлантын Гэрээний Байгууллага
umard Atlantiin gereenii baiguullag
'north Atlantic treaty organisation'
Умард Атлантын Нийтийн Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard Atlantiin niitiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north Atlantic public treaty organisation' (2005)
Умард Атлантын Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard Atlantiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north Atlantic treaty organisation' (2006)
Умард Атлантын Далайн Нийтийн Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard Atlantiin dalain niitiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north Atlantic ocean public treaty organisation' (2008)
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Эдийн Засгийн Хамтын Ажиллагаа Хөгжлийн Байгууллага
ediin zasgiin khamtiin ajillagaa khögjliin baiguullag
'economic cooperation and development organisation'
Аж Ахуйн Хамтралцаа ба Хөгжүүлэлтийн Зохион Байгуулалт
aj akhuin khamtraltsaa ba khögjüüleltiin zokhion baiguulalt
'economic cooperation and development organisation' (2006)
Organisation of American States (OAS) Америкийн Улсуудын Байгууллага
amerikiin ulsuudiin baiguullag
'American states organisation'
Америка Тивийн Төрийн Зохион Байгуулалт
amerika tiviin ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'American continent polity organisation' (2005)
Америка тивийн Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
amerika tiviin ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'American continent states organisation' (2006)
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Газрын Тос Экспортлогч Орнуудын Байгууллага
gazriin tos eksportlogch ornuudiin baiguullag
'petroleum exporter countries organisation'
Гадаадад Чулуун Тос Гаргадаг Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
gadaadad chuluun tos gargadag ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'overseas petroleum exporting countries organisation' (2005)
Гадаадад Чулуун Тос Гаргадаг Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
gadaadad chuluun tos gargadag ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'overseas petroleum exporting countries organisation' (2006)
Чулуун Тос Гадаадад Гаргадаг Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
chuluun tos gadaadad gargadag ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'petroleum overseas-exporting countries organisation' (2008)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Худалдаа, Хөгжлийн Бага Хурал
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin khudaldaa, khögjliin bag khural
'united nations organisation trade, development small meeting'
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Арьлжаа ба Жөгжүүлэлтийн Хуралдаан
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin æraljaa ba khögjüülelltiin khuraldaan
'international union organisation trade and development conference' (2006)
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Арьлжааны болон Жөгжилтийн Хуралдаан
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin æraljaanii bolon khögjiltiin khuraldaan
'international union organisation trade and development conference' (2008)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Боловсрол, Шинжлэх Ухаан, Соёлын Байгууллага
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin bolovsrol, shinjlekh ukhaan, soyolin baiguullag
'united nations organisation education, science, culture organisation'
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Сурган Хүмүүжил Шинжлэх Ухаан Соёлын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulgin surgal khümüüjil shinjlekh ukhaan soyoliin zokhion baiguulalt
'international union organisation education science culture organisation' (2006)
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Сурган Хүмүүжил Шинжлэх Ухаан болон Соёлын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulgin surgal khümüüjil shinjlekh ukhaan bolon soyoliin zokhion baiguulalt
'international union organisation education science and culture organisation' (2008)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Хүүхдийн Сан
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin khüükhdiin san
'united nations organisation children's fund'
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Хүүхдийн Суурь Мөнгөний Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin khüükhdiin suur' möngnii niigemleg
'international union organisation children's fund society' (2006)
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Үйлдвэр Хөгжлийн Байгууллага
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin üildver khögjliin baiguullag
'united nations organisation industrial development organisation'
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Аж Үйлдвэрийг Хөгжүүлэх Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin aj üildveriig khögjüülekh zokhion baiguulalt
'international union organisation industrial development organisation' (2006)
United Nations Population Fund Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Хүн Амын Сан
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin khün amiin san
'united nations organisation population fund'
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Хүн Амын Суурь Мөнгө
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin khün amnii suur' möng
'international union organisation population fund' (2006)
Universal Postal Union (UPU) Дэлхийн Шуудан Холбооны Байгууллага
delkhiin shuudan kholboonii baiguullag
'world posts union organisation'
Previous:
Дэлхийн Шуудангийн Холбоо
delkhiin shuudangiin kholboo
'world postal union'
Олон Улсын Шуудангийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin shuudangiin kholboo
'international postal union' (2006)
World Bank Дэлхийн Банк
delkhiin bank
'world bank'
Дэлхийн Банк
delkhiin bank
'world bank' (2005, 2006, 2008)
World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) Дэлхийн Үйлдвэрчний Эвлэлийн Холбоо
delkhiin üildverchnii evleliin kholboo
'world trade union federation'
Previous:
Бүх Дэлхийн Үйлдвэрчний Эвлэлийн Холбоо
bükh delkhiin üildverchnii evleliin kholboo
'whole-world trade union federation'
Дэлхийн Ажилчины Элвэлийн Холбоот Хурал
delkhiin ajilchinii elveliin kholboot khural
'world trade union federation meeting' (2006)
World Health Organisation (WHO) Дэлхийн Эрүүл Мэндийн Байгууллага
delkhiin erüül mendin baiguullag
'world health organisation'
Previous:
Бүх Дэлхийн Эрүүлийг Хамгаалах Байгууллага (БДЭХБ)
bükh delkhiin erüüliig khamgaalakh baiguullag
'whole-world health protectiong organisation'
Previous:
Дэлхийн Эрүүлийг Хамгаалах Байгууллага (ДЭХБ)
delkhiin erüüliig khamgaalakh baiguullag
'world health protectiong organisation'
Дэлхийн Эрүүл Хамгаалалын Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhin erüül khamgaalalin zokhion baiguulalt
'world health protection organisation' (2005, 2006)
World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) Дэлхийн Оюуны Өмчийн Байгууллага
delkhiin oyunii ömchiin baiguullag
'world intellectual property organisation'
Дэлхийн Мэдлэгийн Өмчийн Эрхийн Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin medlegiin ömchiin erkhiin zokhion baiguulalt
'world intellectual property rights organisation' (2006)
Дэлхийн Мэдлэгийн Бүтээгдэхүүний Эрхийн Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin medlegiin büteegdekhüünii erkhiin zokhion baiguulalt
'world intellectual product rights organisation' (2006)
World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Дэлхийн Цаг Уурын Байгууллага
delkhiin tsag uuriin baiguullag
'world meteorological organisation'
Дэлхийн Цаг Уурын Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin tsag uuriin zokhion baiguulalt
'world meteorological organisation' (2005, 2006, 2008)
World Trade Organisation (WTO) Дэлхийн Худалдааны Байгууллага
delkhiin khudaldaani baiguullag
'world trade organisation'
Дэлхийн Арилжааны Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin æraljaanii zokhion baiguulalt
'world trade organisation' (2005, 2006, 2008)

C. Detailed look at names

1. United Nations

The most important international organisation also happens to be the most problematic: the United Nations.

First, a little background. The term 'United Nations' was coined by Roosevelt during the Second World War and first officially used in the "Declaration by the United Nations" in 1942. It initially referred to the Allied military coalition against the Axis and only later, in 1945, came to be applied to the new post-war international organisation that replaced the old League of Nations. In English, the name forms an exact parallel to the 'United States'.

The relationship among the three names in the official languages of the UN, along with those of three other important languages, can be seen in the following table:

English League of Nations United Nations United States
French Société des Nations Nations Unies États-Unis
Spanish Sociedad de las Naciones Naciones Unidas Estados Unidos
Arabic عصبة الأمم
ʿuṣbat al-ʾumam
'league / band of nations'
الأمم المتحدة
al-ʾumam al-muttaḥida
'the united nations'
الولايات المتحدة
al-wilāyāt al-muttaḥida
'the united states'
Russian Лига Наций
liga natsiy
'league of nations'
Объединённые Наций
ob"yedinonnyye natsiy
'combined nations'
Соединённые Штаты
soyedinonnyye shtaty
'united states'
Chinese 國際聯盟 / 国际联盟
guójì liánméng
'international league/union'
聯合國 / 联合国
liánhéguó
'allied nations, united nations'
合眾國 / 合众国
hézhòngguó
'united masses country'
German Völkerbund
'league of peoples'
Vereinte Nationen
'united nations'
Vereinigte Staaten
'united states'
Japanese 国際連盟
kokusai renmei
'international league'
国際連合
kokusai rengō
'international union'
合衆国
gasshūkoku
'united masses country'
Italian Società delle Nazioni
Nazioni Unite Stati Uniti

Chinese and Russian are of particular interest to Mongolian. Both depart from the regular pattern seen in most other languages.

The Russian name Объединённые Нации ob"yedinonnyye natsii appears to trace back to the 1942 declaration. While the use of Наций natsiy provides a thread of continuity between the League of Nations and the United Nations, the Russian name does not fully parallel that of the United States:

The reason for choosing объединённые ob"yedinonnyye over соединённые soyedinonnyye is unclear, but one factor may have been the military use of the noun объединение ob"yedineniye 'association, union' to refer to combined field forces. According to Stack Exchange, объединить ob"yedinit' is more modern-sounding than соединить soyedinit', which is now largely fossilised in the names of the US and the UK.

The full Russian name of the United Nations, like the French, includes the word 'organisation' (Организация Объединённых Наций organizátsiya ob"yedinonnykh nátsiy 'organisation of combined nations').

Chinese 联合国 liánhéguó is a relatively literal rendering of the English 'United Nations'. However, its origins as a term for a wartime alliance are apparent. As well as 'united nations', it can also be understood as meaning 'joint countries' or 'allied countries', which was the sense it carried in the original 1942 declaration.

Given this background, it is not surprising that 联合国 liánhéguó shares little in common with either the name of the old League of Nations or of the United States.

With this understanding, we can now turn to the Mongolian names for the United Nations.

In Mongolia, the name of the UN is transparently translated from the full Russian name, Организация Объединённых Наций organizatsiya ob"yedinonnykh natsiy 'organisation of combined nations', with one important difference:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллага (НҮБ)
negdsen ündestnii baiguullag
'united nations organisation'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

1. Объединённых ob"yedinonnykh 'combined' is translated into Mongolian as нэгдсэн negdsen 'united'. Unlike the Russian it uses the same word for 'united' as that in the 'United States', Америкийн Нэгдсэн Улс amerikiin negdsen uls 'united state/s of America'. Buryat, a separate variety of Mongolian standardised within the Soviet Union, demonstrates that it is possible to distinguish the two. Buryat uses Нэгэдэмэл Үндэһэнэй Байгуулга negedmel ündehenei baiguulga 'combined nations organisation' for the United Nations and Америкын Нэгэдэһэн Улас amerikiin negedehen ulas 'American united country' for the United States.

For some reason, the Mongolians chose not to use нэгдмэл negdmel 'combined, united'. Нэгдмэл negdmel is generally found in expressions like 'united front' (нэгдмэл фронт negdmel front), 'united party' (нэгдмэл нам negdmel nam), and 'united action' (нэгдмэл ажиллагаа negdmel ajillagaa). As in Russian, нэгдмэл negdmel is also used for military corps.

2. To render the Russian term наций natsiy 'nations', Mongolian uses үндэстэн ündesten, the conventional equivalent to both Russian нация natsiya and English 'nation'.

3. For 'organisation' in the sense of an organised group or body, Mongolian uses байгууллага baiguullag, a noun derived from the verb байгуулах baiguulakh 'to organise, institute, establish, build'.

The relationship with the naming of the old League of Nations and the United States is as follows:

  League of Nations United Nations United States (of America)
Russian Лига Наций
liga natsiy
'league of nations'
Организация Объединённых Наций
organizatsiya ob"yedinonnykh natsiy
'combined nations organisation'
Соединённые Штаты (Америки)
soyedinonnyye shtaty (ameriki)
'united states (of America)'
Buryat -- Нэгэдэмэл Үндэһэнэй Байгуулга
negedemel ündehenei baiguullaga
'combined nation organisation'
(Америкын) Нэгэдэһэн Улас
(amerikin) negdehen ulas
'united state/s (of America)'
Mongolian Үндэстнүүдийн Лиг
ündestnüüdin lig
'league of nations (plural)'
Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллага
negdsen ündestnii baiguullag
'united nation organisation'
(Америкийн) Нэгдсэн Улс
(amerikin) negdsen uls
'united state (of America)'

The use of үндэстэн ündesten to render нация natsiya dates back to the time of the League of Nations. While it may be the conventional translation, however, үндэстэн ündesten has its own peculiar baggage. It is derived from үндэс ündes, which has the basic meaning 'root' but has the further meaning of 'race' or 'ethnic group'. Furthermore, the derived word үндэстэн ündesten itself can also be used for 'race' or 'ethnic group'.

Like the Russian term нация natsiya, үндэстэн ündesten can be used for both 'nation' and 'ethnic group'. This possibly reflects the influence of Soviet nationalities policy, under which нация natsiya could refer both to independent nations (as in English) and to smaller ethnic groups that occupy their own territories within the larger state (traditionally known as 'nationalities' in English translation).

While China also adopted the Soviet model for ethnic minorities (including the use of the English term 'nationality' for internal ethnic groups), it maintained a strict distinction in Chinese between 国家 guójiā 'state, nation' and 民族 mínzú 'nationality, ethnic group'. As used within China, the Mongolian term үндэстэн ündesten refers only to 'ethnic groups' (民族 mínzú) and not to independent nations. In Inner Mongolian eyes, the common practice in the country of Mongolia to use үндэстэн ündesten 'national' for state institutions appears to show a high degree of ethnic consciousness.

Like English, Mongolian has other terms for independent territorial polities. One is улс uls, an old word for political units of various sizes and degrees of independence, now usually equated to 'state' but also used to mean 'country'. Any possibility of using улс uls for the United Nations was unlikely in view of the long-standing name for the United States, Америкийн Нэгдсэн Улс amerikin negdsen uls 'American united state/country'.

In China, the Mongolian name used for the United Nations (given in 1999, 2005, 2006, 2008) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулага
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulag
'international union organisation'

This uses the conventional Mongolian expression for 'international', олон улсын olon ulsiin, which is literally 'many country' or 'many state', so that it can also be understood as 'many country union organisation'. The term used for 'organisation' is байгуулага baiguulag, a slightly different form from байгууллага baiguullag as used in Mongolia.

Interestingly, the name does not attempt to reproduce the Chinese name 联合国 liánhéguó 'united nations' as might have been expected. The reason appears to be the difficulty of coming up with an appropriate translation for the Chinese term. As we noted above, үндэстэн ündesten 'ethnic groups, nationalities' is used in China only for minority ethnic groups, not for sovereign nations. Улс uls 'state, country' is already used in the Mongolian name of the United States. Орон oron 'country, land' is semantically inappropriate for a union of 'nations'. The lack of a suitable direct translation possibly prompted a look at other alternatives.

The name actually chosen is close to the historic name of the League of Nations, which, according to dictionary sources, was Олон улсын холбоо olon ulsiin kholboo 'international union'. The name adopted for the UN differs only in the addition of the word Байгуулага baiguulag 'organisation'.

The relationship among names is as follows:

  League of Nations United Nations United States of America
Chinese 国际联盟
guójì liánméng
'international league/union'
联合国
liánhéguó
'allied nations, united nations'
(美利坚)合众国
měilìjiān hézhòngguó
'united masses country (of America)'
Mongolian Олон Улсын Холбоо
olon ulsiin kholboo
'international union'
Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулага
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulag
'international union organisation'
(Америкийн) Нэгдсэн Улс
(amerikin) negdsen uls
'(American) united state'

The names of the main organs of the UN also show differences between Mongolia and China.

2. General Assembly

Russian:
Генеральная Ассамблея
general'naya assambleya
'general assembly'
Chinese:
大会
dàhuì
'large meeting'
Japanese:
総会
sōkai
'general meeting'

The UN General Assembly is known in Mongolia as:

(Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын) Ерөнхий Ассамблей
(negdsen ündestnii baiguulagin) yörönkhii asamblei
'(united nations organisation) general assamblei'

(ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ)
ᠶᠡᠷᠣᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ

The name is very similar to the Buryat name Юрэнхи Ассамблей yurenxi assamblei 'general assamblei', also modelled on Russian.

In China, the UN General Assembly is known as:

(ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ)
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠯ

(Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулгын) Их Хурал
(olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagin) ikh khural
'(international union organisation) large meeting'

The Mongolian is a direct translation of the Chinese.


3. The United Nations Secretariat

Russian:
Секретариат
sekretariat
'secretariat'
Chinese:
秘书处
mìshùchù
'secretarial office'
Japanese:
事務局
jimu-kyoku
'clerical bureau'

The UN Secretariat has slightly different names in Mongolia and China.

It is known in Mongolia as:

Нарийн Бичгийн Даргын Газар
nariin bichgiin dargin gazar
'secretarial leader place'

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ 
ᠳᠠᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ

The name used in China is:

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ
ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ

Нарийн Бичгийн Газар
nariin bichgiin gazar
'secretarial place'

The difference between the two is that:

The word used for the Secretary-General is the same on both sides:

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ᠌ ᠦᠨ
ᠳᠠᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Нарийн Бичгийн Дарга
nariin bichgiin darg
'secretarial leader'

(Buryat uses the term Юрэнхи секретаряа jorenkhii sekretaryaa 'general secretary' based on Russian Генеральный секретарь general'nyy sekretar'.)


4. Security Council

Russian:
Совет Безопасности
sovet bezopasnosti
'security council'
Chinese:
安全理事会 (安理会)
ānquán lǐshìhuì (ānlǐhuì)
'safety council' or 'security council'
Japanese:
安全保障理事会 (安保理)
anzen-hoshō rijikai (anpori)
'security (=safety guarantee) council'

For the most part, the Security Council goes by the same name in Mongolia and China.

In Mongolia it is known as:

Аюулгүйн зөвлөл
ayulgüin zövlöl
'security council'

ᠠᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠦᠪᠯᠡᠯ

Most modern sources in China (2005, 2006, 2008) adopt the same naming:

ᠠᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠦᠪᠯᠡᠯ

Аюулгүйн зөвлөл
ayulgüiin zövlöl
'security council'

However, an earlier Mongolian-Chinese general dictionary (1999) uses a different word for 'council':

ᠠᠶᠣᠯᠭᠦᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠦᠪᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡᠨ

Аюулгүйн зөвлөлгөөн
ayulgüiin zövlölgöön
'security council'

The word for 'council' here is the same as that used to translate the Russian term 'soviet'.


5. African Union

The African Union is a continental union of African countries. The organisation was established in 2001.

Russian:
Африканский союз
afrikanskiy soyuz
'African union'
Chinese:
非洲联盟
fēizhōu liánméng
'African union'
Japanese:
アフリカ連合
afurika rengō
'African union'

In Mongolia the African Union is known as:

Африкийн Холбоо
afrikiin kholboo
'African union'

ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

In China, the African Union is known in (2006) as:

ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Африка Тивийн Холбоо
afrika tiviin kholboo
'African continent union'

For other bodies known as 'unions', see ITU and UPU.


6. Arab League

The Arab League is formally known as the League of Arab States. It dates from 1945.

Russian:
Лига арабских государств
liga arabskikh gosudarstv
'league of Arab states'
Chinese:
阿拉伯国家联盟
ālābó guójiā liánméng
'Arab country union'
Japanese:
アラブ諸国連盟 (アラブ連盟)
arabu shokoku renmei (arabu renmei)
'Arab various-nations union (Arab union)'

In Mongolia the Arab League is known as:

Арабын Улсуудын Холбоо
arabiin ulsuudiin kholboo
'arab states union'

ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

In China, the Arab League is known by a similar name (2005, 2008):

ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Арабын Улсны Холбоо
arabiin ulsnii kholboo
'arab state union'

However, another source (2006) uses the plural form of улс uls:

ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Арабын Улсуудын Холбоо
arabiin ulsuudiin kholboo
'arab states union'

This is the same name as used in Mongolia.


7. Asian Development Bank

The Asian Development Bank is a largly Japanese-dominated bank headquartered in the Philippines. It was established in 1966.

The general Chinese term for economic development is 发展 fāzhǎn. For the Asian Development Bank, however, Chinese follows Japanese practice and uses the word 开发 kāifā. This term implies an opening up of hitherto untapped potential and is a term favoured in Japanese for its proactive nuances.

Russian:
Азиатский банк развития
aziatskiy bank razvitiya
'Asian development bank'
Chinese:
亚洲开发银行
yàzhōu kāifā yínháng
'Asian development bank'
Japanese:
アジア開発銀行
ajia kaihatsu ginkō
'Asian development bank'

The Mongolian name of the bank is:

Азийн Хөгжлийн Банк
aziin khögjliin bank
'Asian development bank'

ᠠᠽᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

In China there are two separate Mongolian versions of the bank's name due to differences in the translation of 开发 kāifā 'development'.

The translation in a general Chinese-Mongolian dictionary (2005) is:

ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Азиан нээлт банк
azian neelt bank
'Asian opening up bank'

This error is remedied in later sources (2006, 2008):

ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Азиан Тивийн Нээлт Хөгжлүүлэлтийн Банк
azian tiviin neelt khögjlüüleltiin bank
'Asian continent opening and development bank'

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 开发 kāifā in Chinese, see IBRD and IDA.


8. ASEAN

The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is an association of nations covering Southeast Asia. It was established in 1967.

Russian:
Ассоциация государств Юго-Восточной Азии
assotsiatsiya gosudarstv yugo-vostochnoy azii
'association of states of south-east Asia'
Chinese:
东南亚国家协会 (东盟)
dōng-nán yà guójiā xiéhuì (dōngméng)
'east-south Asian state association'
Japanese:
東南アジア諸国連合 (アセアン)
tōnan Ajia shokoku rengō
'association of various nations of east-south Asia'

ASEAN is known in Mongolia as:

Зүүн Өмнөд Азийн Улсуудын Холбоо
züün ömnöd aziin ulsuudiin kholboo
'east-south Asian countries union'

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠨᠦᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦ᠋ᠦᠳ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

In China (2005, 2008), ASEAN is given the name:

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠨᠦᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Зүүн Өмнөд Азиан Холбоо
züün ömnöd azian kholboo
'east-south Asian union'

Another source (2006) includes the word for 'nations':

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠨᠦᠳᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Зүүн Өмнөд Азиан Улсын Холбоо
züün ömnöd azian ulsiin kholboo
'east-south Asian country union'

(For other organisations known as 'associations', see IATA, IDA, and IFA.)


9. Food and Agriculture Organisation

The Food and Agricultural Organisation is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1945.

In China's agrarian culture, staple grain crops (粮食 liángshí) are traditionally of such importance that they are treated as synonymous with 'food'. However, even though in a broader sense 粮食 liángshí also includes beans, roots, and tubers, it is still too narrow to encompass all the food categories covered by the FAO, which include oilseeds, vegetables, fruit, and livestock products. Because of this, it has been argued that using 粮食 liángshí in naming FAO is a mistranslation of the English (e.g., at the Wikipedia Chinese article on the FAO).

Russian:
Продовольственная и сельскохозяйственная организация
prodovol'stvennaya i sel'skokhozyaystvennaya organizatsiya
'organisation of food and agriculture'
Chinese:
粮食及农业组织
liángshí jí nóngyè zǔzhī
'food and agriculture organisation'
Japanese:
食糧農業機関
shokuryō nōgyō kikan
'food and agriculture organ'

The FAO is known in Mongolia as:

Хүнс, хөдөө аж ахуйн байгууллага
khüns, khödöö aj akhuin baiguullag
'food, agriculture organisation'

ᠬᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ᠂
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠦ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The name suggested in China by (2006) is:

ᠠᠮᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ
ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Ам будаа ба тариалангийн зохион байгуулалт
am budaa ba tarialangiin zokhion baiguulalt
'grain and cropping organisation'

As a literal rendition of the Chinese, Mongolian name reflects and arguably reinforces the narrow focus on agrarian food sources:

A second version at (2008) substitutes болон bolon for ба ba 'and'.

ᠠᠮᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠨ
ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Ам будаа болон тариалангийн зохион байгуулалт
am budaa bolon tarialangiin zokhion baiguulalt
'grain and cropping organisation'

The strong agrarian bias in the Mongolian names in China is ironic in view of the traditionally pastoral background of Mongolian culture.


10. International Air Transport Association

The International Air Transport Association is an association of world airlines. It was established in 1945.

Russian:
Международная ассоциация воздушного транспорта
mezhdunarodnaya assotsiatsiya vozdushnogo transporta
'international association of air transport'
Chinese:
国际航空运输协会
guójì hángkōng yùnshū xiéhuì
'international air transport association'
Japanese:
国際航空運送協会
kokusai kōkū unsō kyōkai
'international air transport association'

In Mongolia IATA is known as:

Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin agaariin teevriin kholboo
'international air transport association'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ

However, at least one airline uses the following name, substituting байгууллага baiguullag for холбоо kholboo:

Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin nisekhiin baiguullag
'international air transport organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

For China, source (2006) gives the term:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ

Олон Улсын Агаарын Тээврийн Хэлэлцээр
olon ulsiin agaariin teevriin kheleltseer
'international air transport agreement'

For other organisations known as 'associations', see ASEAN, IDA, and IFA.


11. International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organisation associated with but not under the control of the United Nations. It was established in 1957.

'Agency' (French agence) has a number of senses in English. Here it is used in the sense of an independent administrative division of government.

The Russian term агентство agentsvo 'agency' also refers to an institution that performs certain state, public or social functions.

The Chinese term 机构 jīgòu has the general meaning of 'structure, organisation, institution', and is used as a term for government organisations, both 机关 jīguān 'organ' (strictly referring to organs of state) and other broader agencies of government. Here it is clearly being used as a convenient term to render 'agency'.

Russian:
Международное агентство по атомной энергии (МАгАтЭ)
mezhdunarodnoye agentstvo po atomnoy energii
'international agency for atomic energy'
Chinese:
国际原子能机构
guójì yuánzi néng jīgòu
'international atomic energy agency'
Japanese:
国際原子力機関
kokusai genshiryoku kikan
'international atomic energy organ'

In Mongolia the IAEA is known as:

Олон Улсын Атомын Энергийн Агентлаг (ОУАЭА)
olon ulsiin atomiin energiin agentlag
'international atomic energy agency'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠭᠧᠨᠲ᠋ᠯᠢᠭ᠍

For China, source (2006) gives:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠮᠵᠢ

Олон Улсын Атомын Энергийн Байгууламж
olon ulsiin atomiin energiin baiguulamj
'international atomic energy agency'


12. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is a part of the World Bank. It was established in 1944.

The general Chinese term for economic development is 发展 fāzhǎn. For some institutions, however, Chinese follows Japanese practice and uses the word 开发 kāifā. This term implies an opening up of hitherto untapped potential and is a term favoured in Japanese for its proactive nuances.

Russian:
Международный банк реконструкции и развития
mezhdunarodnyy bank rekonstruktsii i razvitiya
'international bank for reconstruction and development'
Chinese:
国际复兴开发银行
guójì fùxíng kāifā yínháng
'international renewal development bank'
Japanese:
国際復興開発銀行
kokusai fukkō kaihatsu ginkō
'international renewal development bank'

In Mongolia the IBRD is known as:

Олон Улсын Сэргээн Босголт, Хөгжлийн Банк (ОУСБХБ)
olon ulsiin sergeen bosgolt, khöjliin bank
'international reconstruction, development bank'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

A name which has some currency due to online dictionaries is:

Олон Улсын Шинэчлэлт Хөгжлийн Банк
olon ulsiin shinechlelt khöjliin bank
'international renovation development bank'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

The name for the IBRD given in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Олон Улсын Сэргээлт Хөгжүүлэлтийн Банк
olon ulsiin sergeelt khögjüüleltiin bank
'international reconstruction development bank'

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 开发 kāifā in Chinese, see ADB and IDA.


13. International Civil Aviation Organisation

The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1947.

The term 'civil ' in English is defined as "relating to ordinary citizens and their concerns, as distinct from military or ecclesiastical matters". With regard to aviation, it refers to non-military aviation.

The Russian term гражданской grazhdanskoy 'civil' is from гражданин grazhdanin 'citizen' and has the similar meaning of 'non-military'.

Chinese expresses this concept with 民 mín, an ancient term referring to the 'common people' or 'subjects' of a country. In the modern era, 民 mín was taken up in Japanese and then in Chinese for 'civilian' (non-military) and 'private sector' (non-government) matters. The Chinese term 民用 mínyòng 'civilian use' arose from this background.

Russian:
Международная организация гражданской авиации
mezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya grazhdanskoy aviatsii
'international civil aviation organisation'
Chinese:
国际民用航空组织
guójì mínyòng hángkōng zǔzhī
'international civilian use aviation organisation'
Japanese:
国際民間航空機関
kokusai minkan kōkū kikan
'international private air organ'

In Mongolia the ICAO is known as:

Олон Улсын Иргэний Нисэхийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin irgenii nisekhiin baiguullag
'international citizen's (=civilian) aviation organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

One dictionary gives the following as the name of the ICAO, although it is of doubtful currency:

Олон Улсын Иргэний Агаарын Тээврийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin irgenii nisekhiin baiguullag
'international citizen's (=civilian) air transport organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

In China, the name of the ICAO as given in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ
ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠣᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Ардын Агаарын Тээврийн Зохион Байгуулалт
oron ulsiin ardiin agaariin teevriin zokhion baiguulalt
'international people's (=civilian) air transport organisation'

In Mongolian, the rendering of terms like 'civilian' and 'civil' has been complicated by the route of entry. The modern word for the people or citizenry of a country is the compound expression ард иргэн ard irgen, made up of ард ard 'people' and иргэн irgen 'citizen'. The distribution and usage of these terms in modern Mongolian reflects Russian and Chinese usage.

In Mongolia, which follows Russian (and thus Western) usage, иргэн irgen 'citizen' is used for 'civil' and 'civilian' in expressions like иргэний хууль irgenii khuul' ('civil law'; Russian гражданское право grazhdanskoye pravo), иргэний дайн irgenii dain ('civil war'; Russian гранданская война grazhdanskaya voyna), and иргэний барилга байгууламж irgenii barilg baiguulamj ('civil engineering'; Russian гражданское строитэльство grazhdanskoye stroitel'stvo). Ард ard 'people', on the other hand, is used for the people or masses in a political sense, including the word for 'democracy' (ардчилал ardchilal).

In Chinese, on the other hand, 民 mín is used in both senses, covering both 'civil, civilian, private sector' and 'of the people, of the masses'. In general the tendency is to render Chinese 民 mín as ард ard 'people' in Mongolian. This is the case with 民用 mínyòng 'civilian use', which is rendered as ардын хэрэглээ ardin khereglee 'people's use' or simply ардын ardin 'people's'. However, this is not invariably the case. For example, 民法 mínfǎ 'civil law' is иргэний хууль irgenii khuul' 'citizen's law', and 民族 mínzú 'race, ethnicity' is үндэстэн ündesten.

Other expressions using 'civil' in English are completely different in Chinese (often thanks to Japanese), which is then reflected in the Mongolian used in China. For example, 'civil engineering (work)' is шорой модны барилгийн ажил shoroi modnii barilgiin ajil 'earth wood engineering work', from Chinese 土木工程 tǔmù gōngchéng literally 'earth wood engineering'. 'Civil war' is дотоодын дайн dotoonii dain 'internal war', from Chinese 内战 nèizhàn literally 'internal war'.


14. International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations. It was established in 1945.

Russian:
Международный Суд
mezhdunarodnyy sud
'international court'
Chinese:
国际法院
guójì fǎyuàn
'international court'
Japanese:
国際司法裁判所
kokusai shihō saibansho
'international justice court'

Both Russian and Chinese names refer to the ICJ simply as the 'international court'.

The Japanese name of the ICJ, 国際司法裁判所 kokusai shihō saibansho 'international justice court', illustrates what happens when a different language is used as a base. The Japanese follows English 'International Court of Justice' in adding the word 司法 shihō 'law, justice'.

In Mongolia the ICJ is known as:

Олон Улсын Шүүх
olon ulsiin shüükh
'international court'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ

This follows the Russian name Международный Суд mezhdunarodnyy sud 'international court'. The word 'court' is rendered in accordance with Mongolian domestic practice.

For China, sources (2005, 2006, 2008) give the term:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Олон Улсын Шүүх Хороо
olon ulsiin shüükh khoroo
'international court'

This follows the Chinese name of the ICJ, 国际法院 guójì fǎyuàn 'international court'.

'Court' is translated in accordance with local terminology.


15. International Development Association

The International Development Association is a financial organisation associated with the World Bank. It was established in 1960.

In general, Chinese tends to render 'development' as 发展 fāzhǎn, a word implying steady progress based on what is there already (for example, see UNCTAD). But some bodies, like the IDA, use the term 开发 kāifā instead. 开发 kāifā is a term favoured by the Japanese and implies an opening up of hitherto untapped potential.

Russian:
Международная ассоциация развития
mezhdunarodnaya assotsiatsiya razvitiya
'international association for development'
Chinese:
国际开发协会
guójì kāifā xiéhuì
'international development association'
Japanese:
国際開発協会
kokusai kaihatsu kyōkai
'international development association'

The IDA is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Хөгжлийн Ассоциаци
olon ulsiin khögjliin asotsiatsi
'international development assotsiatsi'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠰᠰᠣᠼᠢᠠᠼᠢ

In Chinese sources, the name has three different versions, mainly differing in the translation of 开发 kāifā 'development'.

The version in a general dictionary (2005) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ

Олон Улсын Нээлтийн Эвлэл
olon ulsiin neeltiin evlel
'international opening society'

The version in a legal dictionary (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠨᠡᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ

Олон Улсын Нээн Хөгжүүлэлтийн Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin neen khügjüüleltiin niigemleg
'international opening and development society'

A dictionary of 'new terms' (2008) translates 国际开发协会 guójì kāifā xiéhuì as:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ
ᠨᠡᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ

Дэлхийн нээн хөгжүүлэх нийгэмлэг
delkhiin neen khögjüülekh niigemleg
'world opening developing association'

This version chooses slightly different terms again:

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 开发 kāifā in Chinese, see ADB and IBRD.

For other organisations known as 'associations', see ASEAN, IATA, and IFA.


16. International Finance Corporation

The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is part of the World Bank Group. It was established in 1956. Its mission is to provide investment, advice, and resource mobilisation to the private sector. Its shareholders are member governments who have provided paid-in capital.

Russian:
Международная финансовая корпорация
mezhdunarodnaya finansovaya korporatsiya
'international finance corporation'
Chinese:
国际金融公司
guójì jīnróng gōngsi
'international finance company'
Japanese:
国際金融公社
kokusai kin'yū kōsha
'international finance public-corporation'

In English and Russian, 'finance' can be used for both public and private-sector finance, although without further context will tend to refer to private-sector finance.

The Chinese and Japanese term 金融 jīnróng / kin'yū is used for private-sector finance only.

'Corporation' in English can be used for both public bodies and private-sector companies. In Japanese, probably because the IFC is a public-interest organisation owned by governments, it is called a 公社 kōsha 'public-corporation', a term referring to public-sector bodies. (The same term in Chinese referred to communes.) In Chinese, on the other hand, 'corporation' is translated as 公司 gōngsi 'company'.

The International Finance Corporation is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Санхүүгийн Корпораци
olon ulsiin sankhüügiin korporatsi
'international finance corporation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠣᠷᠠᠼᠢ

The name is a close match to the English and the Russian.

The Chinese name in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ

Олон Улсын Мөнгөн Гүйлгээний Компани
olon ulsiin möngön güilgeenii kompani
'international money circulation (=finance) company'


17. International Fiscal Association

The International Fiscal Association (IFA) is a non-governmental, non-sectoral international organisation dealing with fiscal matters. It was established in 1938.

The English term 'fiscal' refers specifically to government finances.

The Russian name uses налоговая nalogovaya, which can refer to taxation and also to government finances (fiscal matters).

The terms 财政 cáizhèng in Chinese and 財政 zaisei in Japanese refer specifically to government finances.

Russian:
Международная налоговая ассоциация
mezhdunarodnaya nalogovaya assotsiatsiya
'international taxation association'
Chinese:
国际财政协会
guójì cáizhèng xiéhuì
'international fiscal association'
Japanese:
国際財政協会
kokusai zaisei kyōkai
'international fiscal association'

Websites in Mongolia give the name of the IFA as:

Олон Улсын Санхүүгийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin sankhüügiin kholboo
'international finance union'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

The name is found only in non-government websites. Interestingly, unlike the Russian and English terms, the Mongolian name makes no attempt to distinguish 'fiscal' from 'financial'.

One source in China (2006) gives the Mongolian name of the IFA as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ
ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Эдийн Засгийн Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin ediin zasgiin niigemleg
'international fiscal society'

For other organisations known as 'associations', see ASEAN, IATA, and IDA.


18. International Fund for Agricultural Development

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1977.

Russian:
Международный фонд сельскохозяйственного развития (МФСР)
mezhdunarodnyy fond sel'skokhozyaystvennogo razvitiya
'international fund for agricultural development'
Chinese:
国际农业发展基金 (农发基金)
guójì nóngyè fāzhǎn jījīn (nóngfā jījīn)
'international agriculture development fund
'
Japanese:
国際農業開発基金
kokusai nōgyō kaihatsu kikin
'international agricultural development fund'

Unlike the case with many international organisations, Chinese here renders 'development' as 发展 fāzhǎn, in contrast to the Japanese use of 開発 kaihatsu.

The IFAD is known in Mongolia as:

Хөдөө Аж Ахуйг Хөгжүүлэх Олон Улсын Сан
khödöö aj akhuig khögjüülekh olon ulsiin san
'agriculture developing international fund'

ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠦᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠠᠩ

One source in China (2006) gives the Mongolian name of the IFAD as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ
ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Хөдөө Аж Ахуйг Хөгжүүлэх Суурь Мөнгийн Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin khödöö aj akhuig khögjüülekh suur' möngiin zokhion baiguulalt
'international agriculture development fund organisation'

This is a translation of the Chinese name, but with one difference:

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 发展 fāzhǎn in Chinese, see OECD, UNCTAD, and UNIDO.

For other bodies known as 'funds', see IMF, UNICEF, and UNPF.


19. International Labour Organisation

The International Labour Organisation is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was originally established in 1919.

English 'labour', Russian труд trud, and Japanese 労働 rōdō are all abstract nouns referring to the people who supply 'labour'.

On the other hand, Chinese uses 劳工 láogōng, a specific term meaning 'workers' or 'labourers'.

Russian:
Международная организация труда
mezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya truda
'international labour organisation'
Chinese:
国际劳工组织
guójì láogōng zǔzhī
'international workers' organisation'
Japanese:
国際労働機関
kokusai rōdō kikan
'international labour organ'

The ILO is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Хөдөлмөрийн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin khödölmöriin baiguullag
'international labour organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

One source in China (2006) gives the Mongolian name of the ILO as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Ажилчны Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin ajilchnii zokhion baiguulalt
'international workers' organisation'

Note: (2008) lists the non-existent organisation 国际劳动组织 guójì láodòng zǔzhī 'international labour organisation', which it translates as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠦᠳᠡᠯᠮᠦᠷᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Хөдөлмөрчдийн Зохион Байгуулалт olon ulsiin khömörchdiin zokhion baiguulalt 'international labourers' organisation'. Since this is simply the mechanical translation of a non-existent name, I exclude it from consideration.


20. International Maritime Organisation

The International Maritime Organisation is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1948. The current name came into use in 1982.

English has a number of terms related to the sea, including 'nautical', 'marine', and 'maritime'. Of these, 'maritime' is particularly used with reference to seafaring commercial or military activity. The Russian name uses морской morskoi, which is the adjective from море more 'sea'.

In Chinese and Japanese, the concept of 'maritime' (relating to seafaring activity) is conveyed with the term 海事 hǎishì / kaiji 'sea / ocean matters / affairs'.

Russian:
Международная морская организация
mezhdunarodnaya morskaya organizatsiya
'international sea (=marine) organisation'
Chinese:
国际海事组织
guójì hǎishì zǔzhī
'international marine matters organisation'
.
Japanese:
国際海事機関
kokusai kaiji kikan
'international marine matters organ'

The IMO is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Далайн Байгууллага
olon ulsiin dalain baiguullag
'international ocean organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The term suggested for China in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Далайн Явдалын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin dalain yavdaliin baiguulalt
'international ocean affairs organisation'


21. International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund is an international organisation headquartered in Washington. It was formed in 1944.

Russian:
Международный валютный фонд
mezhdunarodnyy valyutnyy fond
'international currency fund'
Chinese:
国际货币基金组织
guójì huòbì jījīn zǔzhī
'international monetary fund organisation'
Japanese:
国際通貨基金
kokusai tsūka kikin
'international currency fund'

Chinese adds the word 组织 zǔzhī 'organisation' to the name.

The name used for the IMF in Mongolia is:

Олон Улсын Валютын Сан
olon ulsiin valyutiin san
'international currency fund'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠸᠠᠯᠶᠦᠲ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠠᠩ

The name of the IMF as found in (2006, 2008) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠦ
ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Зоосны Суурь Мөнгөний Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin zoosnii suur' möngönii zokhion baiguulalt
'international monetary base-money organisation'

For other bodies known as 'funds', see IFAD, UNICEF, and UNPF.


22. International Telecommunication Union

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is a specialised agency of the United Nations, originally established in 1865.

Both the Russian and Chinese terms for 'telecommunications' contain elements meaning 'electric' (электро elektro, 电 diàn) rather than 'tele' (far) as in English.

Russian:
Международный союз электросвязи
mezhdunarodnyy soyuz elektrosvyazi
'international union of telecommunications'
Chinese:
国际电信联盟
guójì diànxìn liánméng
'international electric-communications league / union'
Japanese:
国際電気通信連合
kokusai denki tsūshin rengō
'international electric communications union'

The ITU is known in Mongolia as:

Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбооны Байгууллага
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboonii baiguullag
'international electric communications organisation'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Curiously, the ITU previously had a different name in Mongolian:

Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбоо
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboo
'international electric connections'

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

In Chinese sources (2006), the organisation is known as:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Олон Улсын Цахилгаан Холбооны Холбоо
olon ulsiin tsakhilgaan kholboonii kholboo
'international electric communications union'

For other bodies known as 'unions', see AU and UPU.


23. NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty. The treaty was signed in 1949.

Russian:
Организация Североатлантического договора
organizatsiya severoatlanticheskogo dogovora
'northantlantic treaty organisation'
Chinese:
北大西洋公约组织
běi dàxīyáng gōngyuē zǔzhī
'north Atlantic ocean pact organisation'
Japanese:
北大西洋条約機構
kita taiseiyō jōyaku kikō
'north Atlantic ocean treaty organisation'

NATO is known in Mongolia as:

Умард Атлантын Гэрээний Байгууллага
umard atlantiin gereenii baiguullag
'north atlantic treaty organisation'

ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ
ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

This is a straightforward rendition of the English/Russian:

Note that Buryat Wikipedia calls NATO Хойто Атлантын Хэрээнэй Байгуулга khoito atlantiin khereenei baiguulga 'north Atlantic treaty organisation'.

In China, renditions of NATO are mostly overliteral translations of the Chinese name.

In the general Chinese dictionary at (2005), NATO is rendered as:

ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ
ᠨᠡᠢᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Умард Атлантын Нийтийн Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard atlantiin niitiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north atlantic public treaty organisation'

In (2006), the organisation is given as:

ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ
ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Умард Атлантын Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard atlantiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north atlantic treaty organisation'

The version given in (2008), as part of the expression 'NATO's expansion east', is:

ᠣᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠣ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠨᠡᠢᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Умард Атлантын Далайн Нийтийн Гэрээний Зохион Байгуулалт
umard atlantiin dalain niitiin gereenii zokhion baiguulalt
'north atlantic ocean public treaty organisation'


24. OECD

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is an intergovernmental economic organisation.

Russian:
Организация экономического сотрудничества и развития
organizatsiya ekonomicheskogo sotrudnichestva i razvitiya
'organisation for economic cooperation and development'
Chinese:
经济合作与发展组织
jīngjì hézuò yǔ fāzhǎn zǔzhī
'economic cooperation and development organisation'
Japanese:
経済協力開発機構
keizai kyōryoku kaihatsu kikō
'economic cooperation development organisation'

The OECD is known in Mongolia as:

Эдийн Засгийн Хамтын Ажиллагаа Хөгжлийн Байгууллага
ediin zasgiin khamtiin ajillagaa khögjliin baiguullag
'economic cooperation development organisation'

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠣ  ᠵᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The name recommended for China (listed only at (2006)) differs at almost every point.

ᠠᠵᠣ ᠠᠬᠣᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠣᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Аж Ахуйн Хамтралцаа ба Хөгжүүлэлтийн Зохион Байгуулалт
aj akhuin khamtraltsaa ba khögjüüleltiin zokhion baiguulalt
'economic cooperation and development organisation' (2006)

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 发展 fāzhǎn in Chinese, see IFAD, UNCTAD, and UNIDO.


25. Organisation of American States

The Organisation of American States is a regional organisation for countries in the Americas. It was established in 1948.

Here, 'American' refers not to the United States (as it does in casual speech) but to the Americas, including the two continents of North and South America. In Chinese and Japanese, this is captured by treating the whole as a single continent (洲 zhōu or 州 shū).

Russian:
Организация американских государств
organizatsiya amerikanskikh gosudarstv
'organisation of American states'
Chinese:
美洲国家组织
měizhōu guójiā zǔzhī
'Americas state organisation'
Japanese:
米州機構
beishū kikō
'Americas organisation'

The OAS is known in Mongolia as:

Америкийн Улсуудын Байгууллага
amerikiin ulsuudiin baiguullag
'American states organisation'

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

There are two versions of this name in Chinese dictionaries. In (2005) it is given as:

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠲᠦᠷᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Америка Тивийн Төрийн Зохион Байгуулалт
amerika tiviin ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'American continent polity organisation'

In (2006) it is given as:

ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Америка тивийн Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
amerika tiviin ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'American continent states organisation'


26. OPEC

The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an organisation of petroleum exporting countries founded in 1960.

Russian follows English in using страна strana 'country' rather than государство gosudarstvo 'state'. Стран stran is the plural genitive of страна strana and here forms the compound стран-экспортеров stran-eksportorov 'exporter country'.

China uses 国 guó 'country, state', in the expression 输出国 shūchū-guó 'exporting country'. Note the use of the term 输出 shūchū for 'export' rather than the more common term 出口 chūkǒu. 输出 shūchū, which in Japanese is the normal term for 'export' (輸出 yushutsu), is regarded in Chinese as a fancier word than 出口 chūkǒu.

Russian:
Организация стран-экспортеров нефти
organizatsiya stran-eksportorov nefti
'organisation of oil exporting countries'
Chinese:
石油输出国组织
shíyóu shūchū-guó zǔzhī
'oil export country organisation'
Japanese:
石油輸出国機構
sekiyu yushutsu-koku kikō
'oil export country organisation'

OPEC is known in Mongolia as:

Газрын Тос Экспортлогч Орнуудын Байгууллага
gazriin tos eksportlogch ornuudiin baiguullag
'petroleum exporter countries organisation'

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ
ᠡᠺᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ
ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

OPEC does not have a single name in Mongolian dictionaries in China. Sources give it three slightly different names involving some interesting choices.

The Mongolian version given in (2005) is:

ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ
ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠣ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠮᠵᠢ

Чулуун Тос Гаргах Улсуудын Байгууламж
chuluun tos gargakh ulsuudiin baiguulamj
'petroleum exporting countries agency/structure'

The Mongolian version given in (2006) is:

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠣ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ
ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠣ  ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Гадаадад Чулуун Тос Гаргадаг Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
gadaadad chuluun tos gargadag ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'overseas petroleum exporting countries organisation'

Differences from the earlier form include:

The Mongolian version given in (2008) is:

ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ
ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠣ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ
ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠣ᠋ᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Чулуун Тос Гадаадад Гаргадаг Улсуудын Зохион Байгуулалт
chuluun tos gadaadad gargadag ulsuudiin zokhion baiguulalt
'petroleum overseas-exporting countries organisation'

The three names are united by their use of чулуун тос chuluun tos for 'petroleum', the use of (гадаадад) гаргах (gadaadad) gargakh for 'export', and the use of улсууд ulsuud for 'countries'.

The main differences among them consist in the inclusion and/or placing of гадаадад gadaadad 'to foreign countries', the aspect of the verb гаргах gargakh (plain or habitual), and the word used for 'organisation'.


27. UNCTAD

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment, and development issues. It was established in 1964.

Russian:
Конференция Организации Объединенных Наций по торговле и развитию
konferentsiya organizatsii ob"yedinennykh natsiy po torgovle i razvitiyu
'united nations conference on trade and development'
Chinese:
联合国贸易和发展会议
liánhéguó màoyì hé fāzhǎn huìyì
'united nations trade and development conference'
Japanese:
国連貿易開発会議
kokuren bōeki kaihatsu kaigi
'UN trade development conference'

UNCTAD is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Худалдаа, Хөгжлийн Бага Хурал
negdsen ündestnii baiguulagiin khudaldaa, khögjliin bag khural
'united nations organistion trade, development conference (=little meeting)'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠳᠠᠯᠳᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠯ

The name suggested for China in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠯᠳᠣᠭᠠᠨ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Арьлжаа ба Жөгжүүлэлтийн Хуралдаан
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin æraljaa ba khögjüülelltiin khuraldaan
'international union organisation trade and development conference'

The later source (2008) has several minor differences:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠨ
ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠯᠳᠣᠭᠠᠨ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Арьлжааны болон Жөгжилтийн Хуралдаан
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin æraljaanii bolon khögjiltiin khuraldaan
'international union organisation trade and development conference'

The main differences between the Mongolian name used in Mongolia and those used in China lie in the different translation equivalents adopted for words like 'trade' / 贸易 màoyì; 'development' / 发展 fāzhǎn; and 'conference' / 会议 huìyì. They are not based on any differences in the Russian or Chinese and do not appear to reflect any deep semantic differences.

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 发展 fāzhǎn in Chinese, see IFAD, OECD, and UNIDO.


28. UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is a major specialised body of the United Nations. It was established in 1945.

Russian:
Организации Объединённых Наций по вопросам образования, науки и культуры
organizatsii ob"yedinonnykh natsiy po voprosam obrazovaniya, nauki i kul'tury
'united nations organisation for education, science and culture'
Chinese:
联合国教育科学及文化组织 (教科文组织)
liánhéguó jiàoyù kēxué jí wénhuà zǔzhī (jiàokē wén zǔzhī)
'united nations education science and culture organisation'
Japanese:
国連教育科学文化機関
kokuren kyōiku kagaku bunka kikan
'UN education science culture organ'

UNESCO is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Боловсрол, Шинжлэх Ухаан, Соёлын Байгууллага
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin bolovsrol, shinjlekh ukhaan, soyoliin baiguullag
'united nations organisation education, science, culture organisation'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠣᠷᠠᠯ᠂
ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂
ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Apart from 'UN', the four components of this name are:

The Mongolian version recommended for China by (2008) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ
ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ
ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулгын Сурган Хүмүүжил Шинжлэх Ухаан Соёлын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulgin surgal khümüüjil shinjlekh ukhaan soyoliin zokhion baiguulalt
'international union organisation education science culture organisation'

(2008) differs only in the addition of a word for 'and':

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ
ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠣᠨ
ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулгын Сурган Хүмүүжил Шинжлэх Ухаан болон Соёлын Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulgin surgal khümüüjil shinjlekh ukhaan bolon soyoliin zokhion baiguulalt
'international union organisation education science and culture organisation'

Apart from the name of the UN, the main difference from the Mongolian name stems from the use of a different standardised term for 'education'.


29. UNICEF

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations program providing humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. It was established in 1946.

Russian:
Детский фонд ООН (Организации Объединённых Наций)
detskiy fond oon (organizatsii ob"yedinennykh natsiy)
'children's fund UNO (united nations organisation)'
Chinese:
联合国儿童基金会
liánhéguó értóng jījīn-huì
'united nations children fund society'
Japanese:
国連児童基金
kokuren jidō kikin
'UN children's fund'

UNICEF is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Хүүхдийн Сан
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin khüükhdiin san
'united nations organisation children's fund'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠡᠣᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠠᠩ

The term for China recommended in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ  ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ
ᠨᠡᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Хүүхдийн Суурь Мөнгөний Нийгэмлэг
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin khüükhdiin suur' möngnii niigemleg
'international union organisation children's fund society'

For other bodies known as 'funds', see IFAD, IMF, and UNPF.


30. UNIDO

The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1966.

Russian:
Организация Объединённых Наций по промышленному развитию (ЮНИДО)
organizatsiya ob"yedinonnykh natsiy po promyshlennomu razvitiyu
'united nations organisation for industrial development'
Chinese:
联合国工业发展组织
liánhéguó gōngyè fāzhǎn zǔzhī
'united nations industrial development organisation'
Japanese:
国連工業開発機関
kokuren kōgyō kaihatsu kikan
'UN industrial development organ'

UNIDO is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Үйлдвэр Хөгжлийн Байгууллага
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin üildver khögjliin baiguullag
'united nations organisation industrial development organisation'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠣᠷᠢ  ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

In China, the term recommended in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠵᠣ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠣᠷᠢ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠦᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Аж Үйлдвэрийг Хөгжүүлэх Зохион Байгуулалт
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin aj üildveriig khögjüülekh zokhion baiguulalt
'international union organisation industrial development organisation'

For other bodies where 'development' is expressed with 发展 fāzhǎn in Chinese, see IFAD, OECD, and UNCTAD.


31. United Nations Population Fund

The United Nations Population Fund is a specialised agency of the United Nations that was established in 1969.

Russian:
Фонд ООН в области народонаселения (ЮНФПА)
fond OON v oblasti narodonaseleniya
'united nations fund in the field of population
Chinese:
联合国人口基金
liánhéguó rénkǒu jījīn
'united nations population fund'
Japanese:
国連人口基金
kokuren jinkō kikin
'united nations population fund'

The UNPF is known in Mongolia as:

Нэгдсэн Үндэстний Байгууллагын Хүн Амын Сан
negdsen ündestnii baiguullagiin khün amiin san
'united nations organisation population fund'

ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠰᠠᠩ

In China, the term recommended in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠰᠠᠭᠣᠷᠢ ᠮᠦᠩᠭᠦ

Олон Улсын Холбоот Байгуулагын Хүн Амын Суурь Мөнгө
olon ulsiin kholboot baiguulagiin khün amiin suur' möng
'international union organisation population fund'

For other bodies known as 'funds', see IFAD, IMF, and UNICEF.


32. Universal Postal Union

The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1884.

For 'universal', Russian uses the term Всемирный vsemirnyy 'world'.

Chinese and Japanese use the term 万国 wànguó / bankoku literally 'ten-thousand countries'. While 万国 is still a current term, it is now seldom used in the name of organisations.

Russian:
Всемирный почтовый союз
vsemirnyy pochtovyy soyuz
'world postal union'
Chinese:
万国邮政联盟
wànguó yóuzhèng liánméng
'universal (=ten-thousand countries) postal union'
Japanese:
万国郵便連合
bankoku yūbin rengō
'universal (=ten thousand countries) postal union'

The UPU is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн Шуудангийн Холбооны Байгууллага
delkhiin shuudangiin kholboonii baiguullag
'world postal union organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠰᠢᠣᠳᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠠᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

This is a translation of the Russian, with the addition of the word 'organisation' at the end.

Previously UPU was known as:

Дэлхийн Шуудангийн Холбоо
delkhiin shuudangiin kholboo
'world postal union'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠰᠢᠣᠳᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

In China, the term recommended in (2006) is:

ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠣᠰ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠢᠣᠳᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

Олон Улсын Шуудангийн Холбоо
olon ulsiin shuudangiin kholboo
'international postal union'

The differing rendition of 'universal' in Russian and Chinese has given rise to different terms in Mongolian.

For other bodies known as 'unions', see AU and ITU.


33. World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. It was established in 1944.

Russian:
Всемирный банк
vsemirnyy bank
'world bank'
Chinese:
世界银行
shìjiè yínháng
'world bank'
Japanese:
世界銀行
sekai ginkō
'world bank'

There is little that can be done to vary the name of the World Bank.

In Mongolia it is known as:

Дэлхийн Банк
delkhiin bank
'world bank'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

In China it is known as:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ

Дэлхийн Банк
delkhiin bank
'world bank'


34. World Federation of Trade Unions

The World Federation of Trade Unions is one of the world's major trade union federations. It was established in 1945.

Russian:
Всемирная федерация профсоюзов
vsemirnaya federatsiya profsoyuzov
'world federation of trade unions'
Chinese:
世界工会联合会
shìjiè gōnghuì liánhé huì
'world trade union federation meeting'
Japanese:
世界労働組合連盟
sekai rōdō kumiai renmei
'world trade union union'

In Mongolia the WFTU is known as:

Дэлхийн Үйлдвэрчний Эвлэлийн Холбоо
delkhiin üildverchnii evleliin kholboo
'world trade union federation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ

For China, (2006) lists the WFTU as:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠣ ᠬᠶᠷᠠᠯ

Дэлхийн Ажилчины Элвэлийн Холбоот Хурал
delkhiin ajilchinii elveliin kholboot khural
'world trade union federation meeting'


35. World Health Organisation

The World Health Organisation is a specialised body of the United Nations established in 1948.

While the English uses the simple term 'health', the Russian name uses здравоохранения zdravookhraneniya 'health care', the Chinese name uses 卫生 wèishēng 'health', literally 'life protection', and the Japanese name uses 保健 hoken 'health-protection'. (The Japanese equivalent to 卫生 wèishēng, 衛生 eisei, now tends to be restricted to sanitation and hygiene.)

Russian:
Всемирная организация здравоохранения
vsemirnaya organizatsiya zdravookhraneniya
'world organisation for health care'
Chinese:
世界卫生组织
shìjiè wèishēng zǔzhī
'world health organisation'
Japanese:
世界保健機関
sekai hoken kikan
'world health-protection organ'

The WHO is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн Эрүүл Мэндийн Байгууллага
delkhiin erüül mendin baiguullag
'world health organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The Mongolian name follows English rather than Russian.

At an earlier stage different names appear to have been used for the WHO in Mongolia. One is:

Бүх Дэлхийн Эрүүлийг Хамгаалах Байгууллага (БДЭХБ)
bükh delkhiin erüüliig khamgaalakh baiguullag
'whole-world health protecting organisation'

ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Another is:

Дэлхийн Эрүүлийг Хамгаалах Байгууллага (ДЭХБ)
delkhiin erüüliig khamgaalakh baiguullag
'world health protecting organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠣ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The two older names are similar to the name currently used in China, suggesting that the current name for both the ministry and the WHO are recent developments based on Western (specifically English) models.

The Mongolian name recommended in China (2005, 2006) is:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн эрүүл хамгаалалын зохион байгуулалт
delkhin erüül khamgaalaliin zokhion baiguulalt
'world health protection organisation'

This name reflects the Mongolian-language name for the Chinese Ministry of Health (卫生部 wèishēngbù), which is:

ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ 
ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠣᠨ

Эрүүл хамгаалалын яаман
erüül khamgaalaliin yaaman
'health protection ministry'


36. WIPO

The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations which was established in 1967.

Russian:
Всемирная организация интеллектуальной собственности (ВОИС)
vsemirnaya organizatsiya intellektual'noy sobstvennosti
'world intellectual property organisation'
Chinese:
世界知识产权组织
shìjiè zhīshì chǎnquán zǔzhī
'world knowledge property-rights organisation'
Japanese:
世界知的所有権機関
sekai chiteki shoyūken kikan
'world intellectual ownership-rights organ'

WIPO is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн Оюуны Өмчийн Байгууллага
delkhiin oyunii ömchiin baiguullag
'world intellectual property organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠣᠶᠣᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠮᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

Only one source in China lists a Mongolian-language name for WIPO, but that source (2006) lists two separate names. In a list of abbreviations, WIPO is given as:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠲᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн Мэдлэгийн Бүтээгдэхүүний Эрхийн Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin medlegiin büteegdekhüünii erkhiin zokhion baiguulalt
'world intellectual product rights organisation'

The body of the dictionary gives:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠦᠮᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн Мэдлэгийн Өмчийн Эрхийн Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin medlegiin ömchiin erkhiin zokhion baiguulalt
'world intellectual property rights organisation'

As a relatively new term, there appears to have been some vacillation over the translation of 'intellectual property' into Mongolian in China.

Ironically, the final choice made in China is exactly the opposite of that in Mongolia: мэдлэгийн бүтээгдэхүүн medlegiin büteegdekhüün in China vs оюуны өмч oyunii ömch in Mongolia.


37. World Meteorological Organisation

The World Metereological Organisation is a specialised agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1950.

Russian:
Всемирная метеорологическая организация (ВМО)
Vsemirnaya meteorologicheskaya organizatsiya
'world meterological organisation'
Chinese:
世界气象组织
shìjiè qìxiàng zǔzhī
'world meteorological organisation'
Japanese:
世界気象機関
sekai kishō kikan
'world metereological organ'

The WMO is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн Цаг Уурын Байгууллага (ДЦУБ)
delkhiin tsag uuriin baiguullag
'world meteorological organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠣᠷ ᠦᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

According to (2005, 2006, 2008), the suggested term in China is:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠭᠣᠷ ᠦᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн Цаг Уурын Зохион Байгуулалт
delkhiin tsag uuriin zokhion baiguulalt
'world meteorological organisation'


38. World Trade Organisation

The World Trade Organisation is an intergovernmental organisation which regulates international trade. It was established in 1995.

Russian:
Всемирная торговая организация
vsemirnaya torgovaya organizatsiya
'world trade organisation'
Chinese:
世界贸易组织
shìjiè màoyì zǔzhī
'world trade organisation'
Japanese:
世界貿易機関
sekai bōeki kikan
'world trade organ'

The WTO is known in Mongolia as:

Дэлхийн худалдааны байгууллага
delkhin khudaldaani baiguullag
'world trade organisation'

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠣᠳᠠᠯᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ

The according to (2005, 2008), the term recommended for China is:

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠭᠣᠯᠣᠯᠲᠠ

Дэлхийн арилжааны зохион байгуулалт
delkhin æraljaani zokhion baiguulalt
'world trade organisation'


D. Sources

For the Mongolian-language names in China, I used the following dictionaries:

1. The "Mongolian-Chinese Dictionary (revised expanded edition)", a general dictionary.

ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ
(ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷ)

Cyrillic: Монгол Хятад Толь (Нэмэн зассан дэвтэр) mongol khyatad tol' (nemen zassan devter)
Chinese: 蒙汉词典 (增订本) měng-hàn cídiǎn (zēngdìng-běn)

Inner Mongolian University Press (内蒙古大学出版社)

ᠦᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠭᠣᠯᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ
ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Hohhot 1999.

2. The "Chinese-Mongolian Dictionary (3rd edition)"

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ
(ᠭᠣᠷᠪᠠᠳᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ)

Cyrillic: Хятад Монгол Толь (гуравдугаар хэвлэл) khyatad mongol tol' (gurav dugaar khevlel)
Chinese: 汉蒙词典 (第三版) hàn-měng cídiǎn (dìsānbǎn)

Publishing House of Minority Nationalities (民族出版社)

ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Beijing 2005

3. "Chinese English Mongolian Social Science Terminology Series: Jurisprudence"

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠩᠭ᠍ᠯᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠣᠯᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ
ᠨᠡᠢᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠦ
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠷᠢᠰ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ᠄
ᠬᠠᠣᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠣᠬᠠᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Cyrillic: Хууль Цаазний Ухааны Нэр Томоо khuul' tsaaznii ukhaanii ner tomoo
Chinese: 法律学名词术语 fǎlǜ-xué míngcí shùyǔ

Inner Mongolian Educational Press (内蒙古教育出版社)

ᠦᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠰᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Hohhot 2006

4. "Chinese-Mongolian Dictionary of New Terms"

ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ
ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ

Cyrillic: Хятад Монгол Шинэ Үгсийн Толь khyatad mongol shine ugsiin tol'
Chinese: 汉蒙新词语词典 hànměng xīncíyǔ cídiǎn

Publishing House of Minority Nationalities (民族出版社)

ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ
ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ
ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

Beijing 2008

For names used in Mongolia, I used:

1. International Organisations (website with names from a huge range of languages)

2. A Modern Mongolian-English Dictionary

by Gombojab Hangin
with John R. Krueger and Paul D. Buell, William V. Rozycki, and Robert G. Service.

Indiana University Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies 1986.

3. English-Mongolian Dictionary

by Ch. Ganhuyag

Project Monendic 2010

4. Google Translate and many websites on the Internet.


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