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蒙文阅读: 2-11Mongolian Reading: 2-11

Mongolian script does not work properly on all systems or browsers. It may help to download Mongolian White Font. 有的系统和浏览器老蒙文文字显示不对。如果有问题的话,下载一下蒙古文白体

1. Mongol Bichig1. 老蒙文

(Hover cursor to see Inner Mongolian pronunciation) (光标悬停在文本上显示内蒙的口语发音)

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠣ

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢ 206 (ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠣ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ) ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠣ ᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠣᠷᠯᠠᠵᠣ ᠪᠠᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠠᠰᠣᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠰ ᠲᠣᠰ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠣ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠬᠡᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠣ ᠪᠡᠬᠢ᠂ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠵᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠣ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠲᠦᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠳᠬᠣᠭᠠᠯ ᠴᠢᠮᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠣᠮᠳᠠ ᠴᠢᠮᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠲᠣ ᠪᠠᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠵᠢᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠭᠣᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠶᠣ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠬᠣ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠣᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠣ ᠴᠢᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠠᠭᠣ ᠰᠣᠨᠣᠰᠬᠣ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠦᠭᠡᠷᠰᠦ ᠪᠠᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠦᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃

xuni: bəji:n jas

xuni: bəji:n 206 (hɔjɔ̌r dʃʊ: bogo:d dʒʊrga:n) xəsə̌g jas tʊlgʊ:rlǎdʒ bæ:dǎg jasni: ix bag, xəlbə̌r durs ba uildə̌l xərə̌gtʃə: n tʊs tʊsædɪlgui gabǎli:n jas xabtgæ: təgʃxə̌n, xatʊ: bəx, tɔlgæ:gi: xamga:lǎx uildə̌ltœ: atga:l tʃomǒg ba dʊnd tʃomǒg butu:n ʊrt bæ:dǎga:ra:n xund jumi: orgǒx bʊjʊ: da:xǎd tœxɔ̌rsɔ̌n bæ:dǎg xamgi:n bag gʊrbǎn xəsə̌g jas tʃixə̌nd bæ:dǎg dʊ: sɔnsxɔ̌d xərə̌gtʃə:tœ: xamǎri:n bagǎn dɔtɔ̌r xærɪmxæ: tʃanǎrtæ: mo:rs bædǎg bogo:d tər n xamǎri: dʒa:glǎn xɔjɔ̌r nuxtœ: bɔlɔ̌gdʒæ:

2. Cyrillic2. 新蒙文

Хүний биеийн яс

Хүний биеийг 206 (хоёр зуу бөгөөд зургаан) хэсэг яс тулгуурлаж байдаг. Ясны их бага, хэлбэр дүрс ба үйлдэл хэрэгцээ нь тус тус адилгүй. Гавлын яс хавтгай тэгшхэн, хатуу бэх, толгойг хамгаалах үйлдэлтэй. Атгаал чөмөг ба дунд чөмөг бүдүүн урт байдагаараа хүнд юумыг өргөх буюу даахад тохирсан байдаг. Хамгийн бага гурван хэсэг яс чихэнд байдаг. Дуу сонсоход хэрэгцээтэй. Хамрын багана дотор харимхай чанартай мөөрс байдаг бөгөөд тэр нь хамрыг зааглан хоёр нүхтэй бологжээ.


3. 词汇 3. Vocab 語彙

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ
(xömün ~ xömün)
xun
хүн
【person, human being】【人】
ᠶᠠᠰᠣ
(yasu)
jas
яс
【bone】【骨头】【骨】
ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ
(bey-e)
bəj
бие
【body】【身体】【身体】
ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ
(xeseg)
xəsə̌g
хэсэг
【part, piece】【分开, 分离, 分割】【部分, 断片】
ᠲᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠣᠷᠯᠠᠬᠣ
(tulɣaɣurlaxu)
tʊlgʊ:rlǎx
тулгуурлах
【to support】【支柱, 撑住】【支える, 支持する】
ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
(yexe baɣ-a)
ix bag
их бага
【size】【大小】【大きさ】
ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦ
(xelberi dürsü)
xəlbə̌r durs
хэлбэр дүрс
【form, shape】【形状, 形态】【形, かっこう】
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ
(üiledül)
uildə̌l
үйлдэл
【action, function】【作用, 功用】【作用】
ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ
(xeregčege)
xərə̌gʧə:
хэрэгцээ
【needs, necessities, use】 【需要, 用处】
ᠲᠣᠰ ᠲᠣᠰ
(tus tus)
tʊs tʊs
тус тус
【each】【各个, 各自】【それぞれ】
ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
(adali ügei)
ædɪlgui
адилгүй
【not the same】【不同】【同じではない】
ᠭᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠ
(ɣabala)
gabǎl
гавал
【cranium, skull】【脑颅, 头盖骨】【頭蓋骨】
ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ
(xabtaɣai)
xabtgæ:
хавтгай
【flat】【扁的, 扁平的】【平らな, 扁平な】
ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠬᠡᠨ
(tegsixen)
təgʃxə̌n
тэгшхэн
【flattish】【较平的, 较平坦的】【平らな】
ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠣ
(xataɣu)
xatʊ:
хатуу
【hard】【硬的】【固い】
ᠪᠡᠬᠢ
(bexi)
bəx
бэх
【strong, tough】【坚固, 结实, 牢固】【強固な】
ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠣ
(xamaɣalaxu)
xamga:lǎx
хамгаалах
【to protect】【保护】【保護する, 守る】
ᠠᠳᠬᠣᠭᠠᠯ
(adxuɣal)
atga:l
атгаал
【humerus】【上膊骨, 肱骨】【上腕骨】
ᠴᠢᠮᠦᠭᠡ
(čimöge)
tʃomǒg
чөмөг
【marrowbone (bone that contains marrow)】【长骨】【髄の入っている骨】
ᠳᠣᠮᠳᠠ ᠴᠢᠮᠦᠭᠡ
(dumda čimöge)
dʊnd tʃomǒg
дунд чөмөг
【femur, thighbone】【大腿骨, 股骨】【大腿骨】
ᠪᠦᠳᠦᠭᠦᠨ
(büdügün)
budu:n
бүдүүн
【thick】【粗的, 粗大的】【太い】
ᠣᠷᠲᠣ
(urtu)
ʊrt
урт
【long】【长的】【長い】
ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ
(xündü)
xund
хүнд
【heavy】【重, 沉】【重い】
ᠶᠠᠭᠣᠮ᠎ᠠ
(yaɣum-a)
jum
юм
【thing】【东西】【物】
ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠬᠦ
(ergüxü)
orgǒx
өргөх
【to raise, lift up, elevate】【举, 抬, 托, 举起】【持ち上げる】
ᠪᠣᠶᠣ
(buyu)
bʊjʊ:
буюу
【or】【或, 或者】【または, あるいは】
ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠬᠣ
(daɣaɣaxu)
da:x
даах
【to be able to lift or carry】【受得住, 顶得住】【持てる, 運べる】
ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠬᠣ
(toxiraxu)
tœxrɔ̌x
тохирох
【to fit, suit】【适合, 符合】【符合する, 適合する, 一致する】
ᠴᠢᠬᠢ
(čixi)
tʃix
чих
【ear】【耳朵】【耳】
ᠳᠠᠭᠣ
(daɣu)
dʊ:
дуу
【sound】【声, 声音, 声响】【音】
ᠰᠣᠨᠣᠰᠬᠣ
(sonosxu)
sɔnsɔ̌x
сонсох
【to hear】【听, 听到, 听见】【聞く, 聴く】
ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠷ
(xamar)
xamǎr
хамар
【nose】【褥子, 垫子】【鼻】
ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ
(baɣan-a)
bagǎn
багана
【pillar, column】【柱, 柱子, 支柱】【柱】
ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ
(dotor-a)
dɔtɔ̌r
дотор
【inside】【内里, 内部, 里面】【中の, 内部の】
ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠮᠠᠬᠠᠢ
(xarimaxai)
xærɪmxæ:
харимхай ~ харимгай
【resilient, elastic】【弹性的, 有弹力的】【弾性のある】
ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ
(činar)
tʃanǎr
чанар
【quality, characteristic】【性质】【質, 特質】
ᠮᠦᠭᠡᠷᠰᠦ
(mögersü)
mors ~ mogo:rs
мөгөөрс
【cartilage, gristle】【软骨】【軟骨】
ᠪᠦᠭᠡᠳ
(böged)
bogo:d
бөгөөд
【and】【和, 及, 以及】【〜であって, 〜で】
ᠨᠦᠬᠡ
(nüxe)
nux
нүх
【hole, cavity, orifice】【孔, 眼儿, 口儿】【穴, 孔】
ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠯᠠᠬᠣ
(ǰaɣaɣlaxu)
dʒa:glǎx
зааглах
【to draw a boundary, demarcate】【划界, 分界, 划分界限】【境界線を引く, 区画する】
ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠣ
(bolɣaxu)
bɔlgɔ̌x
болгох
【to make or turn into something】【使得, 致使, 当作, 作为】【〜にする】

4. Notes4. 备注(目前没有中文版)

1. 206: The teacher said that this was read хоёр зуу бөгөөд зургаан ('two hundred and six'). In Mongolia this would normally be expressed as хоёр зуун зургаан ('two hundred six'). While the Mongolian form is also found in Inner Mongolia (depending partly on the region), schools in Inner Mongolia appear to teach хоёр зуу бөгөөд зургаан as the correct form, and this has since moved from bookish language into normal speech. Depending on the area, хоёр зуу тэг зургаан ('two hundred zero six') and хоёр зуу нооль зургаан (also 'two hundred zero six') are apparently also used. These usages all hint at influence from Chinese, where the normal expression is 二百零六 èr bǎi líng liù ('two hundred zero six'). The líng ('zero') is necessary as 二百六 èr bǎi liù ('two hundred six') in Chinese is an abbreviation of 二百六十 èr bǎi liù shí ('two hundred sixty').

2. This lesson brought out some real puzzles about writing, pronunciation, and standardisation. For example:

a. The teacher gave духирсан for тохирсан ('be suitable for'). This form is not listed in either Mongolian or Inner Mongolian dictionaries. (The form дугирах does exist in a different meaning). Духирсан is either a non-standard (regional) pronunciation or an error.

b. The teacher gave адхаал for атгаал. Since атгаал (meaning 'humerus') is an uncommon word, this appears to be a spelling pronunciation. (᠊ᠳ᠊ is normally read д, not т. Furthermore г here is written ambiguously as ᠊ᠬ᠊. As a result, it is difficult to arrive at the correct pronunciation just from the spelling).

c. The teacher was vague about the pronunciation of бологжээ, wavering between бологжээ and болгоожээ. The first appears to be 'standard' in this meaning.

The continued appearance of this kind of issue underlines the great elasticity of the traditional writing system, which permits various pronunciations (including possibly erroneous ones) to coexist. In Mongolia, the adoption of Cyrillic has been instrumental in efforts to standardise the language.

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